Exercise. It gets the blood pumping and the muscles going. It energises you and it tires you out. And sometimes, after a good workout, you wake up feeling all sorts of stiffness in muscles you didnt know you had. So what causes this?

Let’s start by looking at something called: Muscle Hypertrophy:

This is when your muscles increase in size as they get stronger. Due to:

  1. Mechanical tension
  2. Metabolic stress
  3. Muscle damage

This muscle damage is what can cause Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). So while muscle damage is not an essential aspect of hypertrophy, it is a sign that you are on the right track to building muscle… albeit a painful sign.

DOMS is a distinct muscle pain that is caused by overloading the muscles through heavy or unaccustomed activities. It can range in severity and timing and is characterised by a feeling of being sore, achy, weak and generally quite “pap”. Often it develops overnight and one will wake up feeling this soreness. Unfortunately DOMS can often deter people from exercising as they feel they are getting hurt, however this is not the case and DOMS is a natural reaction that does subside.




The dictionary defines balance as: 

  • an even distribution of weight enabling someone or something to remain upright and steady 
  • put (something) in a steady position so that it does not fall 
  • an instrument for weighing 
  • an oscillating wheel operating with a hairspring to regulate the movement of a timepiece 
  • physical equilibrium 

Perhaps you have also heard people say things such as, “My balance has always been bad”, or “Poor balance is a part of getting old”, or even “I am thinking about getting a stick now that my balance is so bad” 

So in your context, what is balance? 

Maintaining ones balance depends on the following 3 processes happening: 

  1. Your sensory system accurately portraying information on your body’s position in its environment  –  Hearing, vision and touch (such as our feet on the floor) 
  2. Your brain processing that information  –  Neurons, sensory receptors in the brain and the decision making centres. 
  3. Your muscles and joints coordinating movement based on the information your brain gives them  –  Being able to contract and relax to move how you want to. 

These 3 factors are usually an automatic process for our body, and so when we feel our balance worsening, we need to explore which of these steps are not working how they should. 

Most of the time, poor balance is a combination of a few factors, each adding a little bit to our instability. It is important to explore each of these factors and see which are lacking. Most of the time our balance problems can be anticipated and corrected if we know what to look out for.